Assessing the impact of demand response on peak demand in a developing country: The case of Ghana
Peak demand on electricity grids is a growing problem that increases costs and risks to supply security. Residential sector loads often contribute significantly to seasonal and daily peak demand. Demand response refers to consumer actions that change the utility load profile in a way that reduces costs or improves grid security by applying price signals and automated load shedding technologies. The methodologies that are used to achieve demand response can hardly be applicable in developing countries. Peak pricing of electricity, for instance, can hardly be implemented in many developing countries as high prices would disproportionately affect the many low-income households who do not have the capacity to take action to avoid paying high peak prices. This study aims to develop demand response methodology that can be applied in developing countries to achieve residential peak demand reduction. We use a consumer preference survey to develop a methodology suitable for developing countries. The method of diversified demand is used with energy audit and monitored data to estimate the potential peak load reduction and its cost-effectiveness for Ghana. Results show that peak reduction of 15-210 MW is expected by 2040 with a positive return on investment of 2-22% for all designed scenarios.