Cost and potential of metal–organic frameworks for hydrogen back-up power supply
Hydrogen offers a route to storing renewable electricity and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Metal–organic framework (MOF) adsorbents are promising candidates for hydrogen storage, but a deep understanding of their potential for large-scale, stationary back-up power applications has been lacking. Here we utilize techno-economic analysis and process modelling, which leverage molecular simulation and experimental results, to evaluate the future opportunities of MOF-stored hydrogen for back-up power applications and set critical targets for future material development. We show that with carefully designed charging–discharging patterns, MOFs coupled with electrolysers and fuel cells are economically comparable with contemporary incumbent energy-storage technologies in back-up power applications. Future research should target developing MOFs with 15 g kg−1 of recoverable hydrogen adsorbed (excess uptake) and could be manufactured for under US$10 kg−1 to make the on-site storage system a leading option for back-up power applications.