Emerging Energy-Efficiency and CO2 Emissions-Reduction Technologies for Industry: A Review of Technologies for Alternative Ironmaking and Pulp and Paper Industry
Iron and steel and pulp and paper manufacturing are among the most energy-intensive industries. The steel industry accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct CO2 emissions from industry. The ongoing increase in world steel and paper demand means that these industries’ energy use and CO2 emissions will continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize, and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel and paper production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel and paper industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This paper presents the work on compiling the available information on emerging alternative ironmaking technologies and emerging technology for the pulp and paper industry, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, ;companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status. The methodology of the study and some of the important technologies will be discussed in details.