Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China’s Cement Production: Methodologies and Uncertainties

Publication Type

Journal Article

Date Published

06/2013

LBNL Report Number

LBNL-6329E

Abstract

In 2010, China’s cement output was 1.9 gigatonnes, which accounted for 56% of world cement production. Total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from Chinese cement production could therefore exceed 1.2 gigatonnes. The magnitude of emissions from this single industrial sector in one country underscores the need to understand the uncertainty of current estimates of cement emissions in China. This paper compares several methodologies for calculating CO2 emissions from cement production, including the three main components of emissions: direct emissions from the calcination process for clinker production, direct emissions from fossil fuel combustion and indirect emissions from electricity consumption. This paper examines in detail the differences between common methodologies for each emission component, and considers their effect on total emissions. We then evaluate the overall level of uncertainty implied by the differences among methodologies according to recommendations of the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology. We find a relative uncertainty inChina’s cement-related emissions in the range of 10 to 18 percent. This result highlights the importance of understanding and refining methods of estimating emissions in this important industrial sector.

Journal

Energy Policy

Volume

57

Year of Publication

2013

Pagination

172-181