Adjustment strategies including window ventilation and shading have important improvements in energy consumption, thermal and light environments, furthermore, the upper limit for improvement is affected by design parameters. However, studies incorporating adjustment strategies in the building design process are very limited. To address this research gap, we explore the effects of window ventilation and shading on building design performance from uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, and multi-objective optimization. Furthermore, China’s typical climate zones are compared given climate effects. Results indicate that (1) the uncertainty of total energy demand in the severe cold climate is most affected with the uncertainty increase rate being 32.0%, the uncertainty of thermal comfort ratio in the hot summer and cold winter climate and the hot summer and warm winter climate is most affected with the uncertainty increase rate being 16.3% and 14.0%, respectively. (2) the sensitivity analysis of the thermal comfort ratio is more sensitive to adjustment strategies than to total energy demand. The severe cold climate is more vulnerable than in other climates. (3) when multi-objective optimization is performed with maximum thermal comfort and minimum total energy demand when considering adjustment strategies, the severe cold climate has the greatest energy-saving potential (38.1%) and the hot summer and cold winter climate has the largest potential to improve thermal comfort (17.6%). More importantly, the light environment is within the comfort range from the daylight glare index, the illuminance, and illuminance uniformity ratios.