A New Carbon Monoxide Occupational Dosimeter: Results from a Worker Exposure Assessment Survey
The LBNL/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy +/- 20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device represents a major improvement over currently available low-cost personal CO monitors. At the MCC, over 1000 workers set up and remove exhibitions. Forty propane-powered forklifts moved materials throughout the 42,000 m2 of exhibit halls. Diesel truck emissions enter the building via three internal underground loading docks. The LOCD was used to measure 154 worker exposures on 3 days. Sampler performance was compared to a standard method at 15 fixed sites. The geometric mean (GM) of all 154 exposures was 7 ppm (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.6); 10% of the exposures was 10 ppm or more. Dock Walkers and Forklift Operators had the highest exposures (maximum = 34 ppm) with GM (GSD) of 9 (1.7) and 9 (1.6) ppm, respectively. Attendants and Installer/Decorators had the lowest exposures with GMs of 6 (1.6) and 7 (1.4), respectively. The Cal/OSHA personal exposure limit for CO is 25 ppm time-weighted average (TWA).