LBNL Report Number
"World best practice" energy intensity values, representing the most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in at least one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron and steel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energy intensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for each of these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes (t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consuming processes for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the process level. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energy used at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined as the energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used to produce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice" figures for energy consumption provided in this report should be considered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the material inputs.