A multi-level load shape clustering and disaggregation approach to characterize patterns of energy consumption behavior
This study presents representative electrical load shapes, disaggregated to the end-use level, for over 5000 customer clusters across California’s residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural sectors. We developed a novel, multi-level load shape clustering approach for residential and commercial sectors leveraging interval meter data for over 350,000 California utility customers collected as a part of the Phase 4 California Demand Response (DR) Potential Study. The clustering approach allowed us to identify typical consumption patterns and categorize customers based on their daily load shape displayed throughout the year. For example, we were able to identify customers with particular energy technologies such as electric vehicles and rooftop solar, as well as building occupancy types such as restaurants, grocery stores and even unoccupied buildings, based solely on whole-building interval data. We then combined the load shape-based clusters with other customer information including building type, climate, geographical area, total consumption and low-income status, to create a set of customer clusters based on both demographics and usage patterns. Total cluster electricity demand was then disaggregated into a wide variety of end-uses using weather normalization and other publicly available end-use load shape datasets. The resulting disaggregated cluster load shapes will be released in anonymized form as part of the Phase 4 DR Potential Study. They will have wide-ranging applications in energy research and policy analysis, including estimation of energy efficiency (EE) and DR potential on the end-use level, time-dependent valuation of EE savings, building stock modeling, and developing customer targeting strategies for EE and DR programs.