On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks
Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks were measured at high time resolution in a highway tunnel in Oakland, CA, during July 2010. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method, in which pollutants measured in each exhaust plume were normalized to measured concentrations of carbon dioxide. Pollutants considered here include nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ethene, and black carbon (BC), as well as optical properties of emitted particles. Fleet-average emission factors for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and BC respectively decreased 30 ± 6 and 37 ± 10% relative to levels measured at the same location in 2006, whereas a 34 ± 18% increase in the average NO2 emission factor was observed. Emissions distributions for all species were skewed with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to total emissions. For example, the dirtiest 10% of trucks emitted half of total NO2 and BC emissions. Emission rates for NO2 were found to be anticorrelated with all other species considered here, likely due to the use of catalyzed diesel particle filters to help control exhaust emissions. Absorption and scattering cross-section emission factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 ± 0.03.