Understanding Costs Associated with Wind Energy Opposition and Stakeholder Engagement

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Policy Brief

Date Published




Wind energy social science research historically focused on the social acceptance of wind energy development. Research in this field is robust, and scholars have identified drivers influencing attitudes and acceptance. The criteria defining the opposition of wind energy, and their costs, although related, are less well understood. This gap in research includes the costs of delayed and failed projects to communities and developers. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 28 - The Social Science of Wind Energy Acceptance outlined a work package to help answer that question. The first deliverable for IEA Wind Task 28, Work Package 2, was an annotated bibliography that identified key pieces of literature that quantify the costs of opposition to wind projects. Although there is a robust wind social acceptance literature, our efforts highlighted that there has been little research directly quantifying the cost of opposition, engagement, delays, and failures. To directly summarize the appropriate literature and provide context for potential future work, the literature review ranged from directly relevant articles to works providing context and valuable information for our research objective in the future. This associated deliverable, a briefing document summarizing the outcomes of our literature search, is meant to guide future research on opposition to wind energy for IEA Task 28 and beyond.

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You can download the briefing here


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